Urology refers to the vast field of medical treatments that are related to the urinary tract, of both men and women, along with the male reproductive system. It is also called genitourinary surgery. Urinary bladder, urethra, adrenal glands, kidneys, ureters, and also several male reproductive organs such as vas deferens, prostate, testes, seminal vesicles, penis, and epididymis all belong to urology. The reproductive and urinary tracts are closely interlinked and if one suffers, the other will also suffer from it.

Urology has many times combined the management of surgical conditions such as congenital abnormalities, stress incontinence, traumatic injuries, and many more with the management of non-surgical or medical conditions like benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary tract Infections. Urology is also associated with:

  1. Oncology
  2. Nephrology
  3. Pediatric surgery
  4. Andrology
  5. Endocrinology
  6. Gynaecology
  7. Colorectal surgery, and
  8. Gastroenterology

Urologists are trained physicians who deal with the surgeries of several diseases in the urinary region. The numerous conditions that are treated by urologists include;

For Men:

  1. Kidney diseases
  2. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
  3. Infertility
  4. Enlargement of the veins in the scrotum also called varicoceles
  5. Prostatitis
  6. Kidney Stones
  7. Erectile dysfunction or the problem keeping an erection
  8. Interstitial cystitis, also known as the painful bladder syndrome
  9. Cancer of the penis, testicles, prostate and adrenal glands, kidneys and bladder

For Women:

  1. Urinary incontinence
  2. UTIs
  3. Overactive bladder
  4. Bladder prolapse, which is also known as the dropping of the bladder into vaginal
  5. Kidney stones
  6. Interstitial cystitis
  7. Cancer of the kidneys, adrenal glands, and bladder

For Children:

  1. Undescended testicles
  2. Bed-wetting
  3. Blockage or any other issues with the urinary tract structure


There are various sub-disciplines under Urology, which are specialized by urologists, such as;


Neurourology most commonly refers to the study of the functions, diseases, and structure of the nervous system. The neurological disorders and diseases concern spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, a stroke which may interrupt the lower abdomen area and the outcome of such situations would be; urinary retention, detrusor overactivity, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia.


Andrology is the medical skill that deals with male health problems, specifically related to the male reproductive system and urological structures such as male fertility issues, surgery of the male reproductive system, and prostate cancer. Andrology is the opposite of gynecology, which deals with female reproductive and urological health.


Laparoscopy refers to an operation that takes place in the pelvis or abdomen by employing small incisions with the help of a camera. The patients have several advantages with laparoscopic surgery in comparison to open procedure. Such includes reducing pain, short times recovery, and reducing hemorrhaging. It is also known as keyhole surgery, bandaid surgery, and minimally invasive surgery (MIS).

Pediatric Urology

Pediatric urology deals with urological disorders in children such as enuresis, congenital abnormalities in the genitourinary tract, cryptorchidism (or undescended testicles), vesicoureteral reflux, and underdeveloped genitalia.


Endourology is a part of Urology in which minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a technique is used for looking inside the urinary tract while performing surgery. Many parts of the urinary tract can be easily reached through the urethra, allowing stone surgery, prostatic surgery.

Reconstructive Urology

Reconstructive Urology is a highly developed province of male urology which helps in the restoration of functions and structures to the genitourinary regions. Reconstructive Urology involved in trauma disease, partial or full hysterectomies, prostate procedure, childbirth occasionally.


Urologists may take tests or perform examinations of the patients which may include:

  1. CT Scan, MRI Scan or Ultrasound
  2. Cystogram
  3. Perform urodynamic tests
  4. Perform a post-void residual urine test
  5. Perform a cystoscopy

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